APPLES – 7 Species – 10 Trees
Tafeläpfel / Table Apples:
Kanada Renette (1)
Cox Orange (1)
Ananas Renette (1)
Mostäpfel / Juice-Cooking Apples:
Steirischer Maschanzker (2)
The image below represents a fraction of the full permaculture design of Obenaus including mostly the
apple orchard at present and recommendations for the future. The red circle shows where the new
apple trees were planted in the spring of 2017, along the north edge of the orchard. The two varieties of
apple trees on the east side that are not in the circle unfortunately did not survive. We believe it was
caused by a lack of good soil or a water drainage issue, as the ground around there still covers old
fragments of cement structures.
Recommendations on growing Apple Trees:
Growing apple trees on higher ground away from frost pockets protects the blossoms from early death,
thus increasing the chances of a good harvest. It is also advised not to plant the trees near dense forests
or streams to prevent against rot and too much shade. Apples grow best in full sun away from constant
wind. An apple tree that fall in partial sunlight is not likely to fully yield. Apples also prefer well-drained
loamy soil (mix of sand and clay), although they will grow in more sandy soil or in soil with some clay. It
is best to plant bare root trees in the spring as soon as the soil can be worked and before the trees
begins to significantly leaf out. When planting apple trees, it is important to pay attention to how the
root ball goes into the ground. It is recommended to dig the hole double the diameter of the root ball
and at least two feet deep. Apples can grow from 10 to 30 feet tall (3 to 10m) and nearly as wide. They
are moderately fast growing trees, but the growth slows with age. An apple tree should be planted
within 40 to 50 feet (12-15 m) of another apple tree that blooms at the same time for optimal
pollination. A standard tree will require 20 to 30 feet (6-9 m) of growing space; a semi-dwarf will require
15 to 20 feet (4.5-6 m). It is very beneficial to feed the apple trees with a mulch of aged compost applied
around the base of the tree (but without touching the trunk) once or twice a year, in spring or in late fall
after the leaves have dropped. Some sources say to allow the apple trees to become well-established
before fruiting. Therefore, during the first two years, that means handpicking the flowers off as well as
the young fruits not allowing them to develop; this will supposedly give the tree increased energy to
establish its roots. In the third year, allow the tree to bear a small crop. Do not allow a limb to become
so burdened with fruit that it will bend or break.
PEARS – 4 Species – 5 Trees
Tafelbirnen / Table Pears:
Gute Luise (2)
Mostbirnen / Juice-Cooking Pears:
Grüne Sommermagdalene (1)
Gelbmöster (1) – smaller variety
The image below also represents a fraction of the full permaculture design of Obenaus but this time
including the northern part of the land. The red circle in this map shows where the new pear trees were
planted in the spring of 2017. Again, the two varieties of pear trees on the east side, north of the walnut
tree, unfortunately did not survive. It is possible that they did not receive enough sunshine or that they
were affected by the toxins of the walnut tree.
Recommendations on growing Pear Trees:
It is recommended to plant at least two varieties of pear trees because they need to be cross-pollinated to produce fruit. It is best to plant pear trees in fertile, well-drained soil in full sun to light shade, and in a place with good air circulation in the winter or early spring. Pears can grow in loamy, sandy or clay soils, though they do best in rich, loamy soil. The planting space recommended between standard-size trees is 20 to 30 feet apart (about 6-9 m) since they can get to about 12m high. Pears should be staked with a sturdy post driven into the ground to help the tree grow straight and withstand wind damage. As with any fruit trees, it is very beneficial to apply a good layer of mulch at a depth of 2-3 inches in a three foot circle around the trees (without touching the trunk to avoid rot).
Weiteres Streuobst / Other kinds of Orchard trees
Weingartenpfirsich /Wine garden Peach (1) – the small one: does not grow very high so need to be planted in a sunny location where not easily accessible by sheep or deer.
Edelkastanie / Chesnut (4)
The peach tree was planted near the capsula, on the east side of the orchard, with the other pear and peach trees that were planted around this location a few years ago.The chesnut trees were inter-planted between the already existing cherry trees along the north side of the driveway.
***Recommendations about Planting Bare-Root Fruit Trees:
It is strongly recommended to soak bare-rooted trees or shrubs for about 30 minutes prior to planting. The fine root hairs of small bare-root seedlings are very fragile, and die quickly if they dry out (and drown if kept flooded). Plant as quickly as possible, and keep stock in a moist, cool, shaded storage in the meantime. Heel them in under some dirt in the garden if there will be any delay in the planting. Most planting is done in early spring, while trees are still dormant.
Dig a hole that is a few inches deeper and wider (2 to 3 times the size of the root ball) than the spread of the roots. Set the tree on top of a small mound of soil in the middle of the hole. If the sides or base of the planting hole are really hard, break the soil up with a fork before planting. Be sure to spread the roots away from the trunk without excessively bending them. Mix in some compost with the earth. On poor soils, one can sprinkle inoculants of mycorrhizal fungi (e.g. Rootgrow) over the roots, this may help the trees and shrubs to establish themselves better. Yet, it is also possible to put a layer of sawdust to encourage mycorrhizal fungi. When covering the roots with soil, it is good to tamp it down as you go so one can ensure that the roots are completely touching the dirt. This makes certain that the tree is going to get all the nutrients necessary from the soil because most of the air pockets were removed. Water well and continue to water regularly but moderately — once or twice a week — until the roots are well established. It is best to allow the water to seep into the soil before watering again, so that the roots are encouraged to grow deep and wide (in search of water) which will help them to become well established.
Recommendations From the Permaculture Design: